Payne had surgery to repair the fifth metatarsal on Wednesday. The team says he will remain in a splint the next seven to 10 days and then spend six to eight weeks in a boot.
Payne was injured in a workout on July 18. Six weeks of rest in a boot was prescribed, but the team said recently a subsequent scan showed the bone did not heal "satisfactorily."
Payne also broke his right foot during the 2015-16 season with Oklahoma City.
Payne was acquired in the February trade that sent Taj Gibson and Doug McDermott to the Thunder. He struggled for Chicago, averaging 4.9 points in 11 games.