Trouba had been an assistant since the 2020-21 season.
The Rangers were without a captain since the 2017-18 season after Ryan McDonough left for the Tampa Bay Lightning. Since then, the Blueshirts elected to go with a group of assistants.
The Rochester, Michigan native picked up 39 points (11 goals, 28 assists) in 81 games for the Rangers last season. He added five points (one goal, four assists) in the playoffs to help the Rangers reach the Eastern Conference Finals.